Exact time with seconds in Antarctica and timezones
Although there is no legally recognized time zone in Antarctica, the three nations with active research stations have adopted UTC time. This includes the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) which uses a UTC-UTC+1 hybrid zone for their bases in the Antarctic peninsula. Similarly, the Russian Antarctic Expedition has adopted UTC+3 for their bases. Finally, the United States Antarctic Program uses UTC-3 for its bases in East Antarctica, including McMurdo Station.
Notably, these time zones are in effect only while the stations are in operation, and not on a permanent basis. For example, BAS bases in the peninsula keep UTC+1 during summer and UTC during winter, while McMurdo Station switches from UTC-3 during summer to UTC-4 during winter. This changing time zone system has led to some confusion for researchers who have crossed the International Date Line after traveling through the various time zones of Antarctica.